Study Guide DNA

Answer the following questions. If you'd like a hardcopy/offline version of the study guide, click here to download them. Use your notes to help you complete the questions for this worksheet. DNA This section tells about the experiments that helped scientists discover the relationship between genes and DNA. It also describes the chemical structure of the DNA molecule.

 

Griffith and Transformation

1. What did Frederick Griffith want to learn about bacteria?

 

Avery and DNA

2. Briefly describe how Avery and his group determined which molecule was most important for transformation

3. What was the conclusion from Avery's experiments?

 

The Hershey-Chase Experiment

4. What is a bacteriophage

5. What results did Hershey and Chase observe? 

6. Hershey and Chase concluded that the genetic material of the bacteriophage was _________________________ .

 

The Structure of DNA 

7. List the three critical things that genes were known to do

a.

b.

c.

 

8. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine are four kinds of _______________ bases in DNA. 

9. What forms the backbone of a DNA chain?

10. Is the following sentence true or false? The nucleotides must be joined together in a specific order.

11. Rosalind Franklin's work with X-ray diffraction showed that the DNA molecule is shaped like a(an)_______________________ and contains _______________ (Matching) strands. 

12. How did Watson and Crick describe the structure of DNA? 

13. Is the following sentence true or false? According to the principle of base pairing, hydrogen bonds could form only between adenine and cytosine.

 

Chromosomes and DNA Replication

14. Indicate the letter of the location of DNA in prokaryotic cells.

a. nucleus

b. mitochondria

c. cytoplasm

d. vacuole

 

15. Is the following sentence true or false? Most prokaryotes contain a single, circular DNA molecule.

16. Is the following sentence true or false? All organisms have the same number of chromosomes.

17. Is the following sentence true or false? The E. coli chromosome is longer than the diameter of an individual E. coli bacterium.

 

18. Indicate the letter of each sentence that is true about chromosome structure.

a. The DNA in eukaryotic cells is very loosely packed.

b. Prokaryotic cells contain more DNA than eukaryotic cells.

c. A human cell contains more than 1 meter of DNA.

d. The DNA of the smallest human chromosome is nearly 10 times as long as many bacterial chromosomes.

 

DNA Replication 

19. What occurs during the process of replication?

20. What occurs when a molecule of DNA is "unzipped"?

21. What is the complimentary strand of bases for a strand with the bases TACGTT?

22. Is the following sentence true or false? Each DNA molecule resulting from replication has one original strand and one new strand.